Global South Calls For Respect Of Sovereignty & Economic Justice

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Group of 77 Declaration: For a New World Order for Living Well

Summit of Heads of State and Government of the Group of 77
Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Plurinational State of Bolivia, 14 and 15 June 2014

Declaration

Part I: Overall context

1.       We, the Heads of State and Government of the member States of the Group of 77 and China, have gathered in the city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Plurinational State of Bolivia, for the commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of the establishment of the Group.

2.       We commemorate the formation of the Group of 77 on 15 June 1964 and recall the ideals and principles contained in the historic Joint Declaration of the Seventy-Seven Developing Countries, signed at the end of the first session of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), held in Geneva.

3.       We recall that the first ever statement of the Group of 77 pledged to promote equality in the international economic and social order and promote the interests of the developing world, declared their unity under a common interest and defined the Group as “an instrument for enlarging the area of cooperative endeavour in the international field and for securing mutually beneficent relationships with the rest of the world”.

4.       We also recall the first Ministerial Meeting of the Group of 77, held in Algiers from 10 to 25 October 1964, at which the Group adopted the Charter of Algiers, which established the principles of unity, complementarity, cooperation and solidarity of the developing countries and their determination to strive for economic and social development, individually or collectively.

5.       We highlight that the Group of 77 has provided the means for the countries of the South to articulate and promote their collective social and economic interests and enhanced their joint negotiating capacity within the United Nations system, and note with satisfaction that the Group has established a permanent secretariat at United Nations Headquarters in New York and chapters in Geneva, Nairobi, Paris, Rome, Vienna and the Group of 24 in Washington, D.C., and that its membership now stands at 133 member States.

6.       We also recall the successful holding of the first South Summit of the Groupof 77 and China in Havana in April 2000 and the second South Summit in Doha in June 2005, at which the status of the Group of 77 and China was elevated to the level of Heads of State and Government and at which important declarations and plans of action were adopted that have guided our Group and constitute the fundamental basis for the construction of a new world order and an agenda owned by the countries of the South for the establishment of a more just, democratic and equal system that benefits our peoples.

7.       We pledge to continue the tradition of our countries on building national development and uniting at the international level, towards the establishment of a just international order in the world economy that supports developing countries achieve our objectives of sustained economic growth, full employment, social equity, provision of basic goods and services to our people, protection of the environment and living in harmony with nature.

8.       We are proud of the legacy and great achievements of the Group of 77 and China in defending and promoting the interest of the developing countries over the past 50 years, which have contributed gradually to greater strength and influence on economic, social and environmental issues. We pledge to build on this foundation and continue making progress towards a world order that is just, equitable, stable and peaceful. Major landmarks in this regard have been the adoption by the United Nations General Assembly of the Declaration on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order in 1974, the Declaration on the Right to Development in 1986 and several other historic declarations that recognize and address the needs and interests of developing countries and constitute an utmost priority.

9.       We believe in the peaceful settlement of conflicts through dialogue.

10.     We also note that, despite five decades of achievements, there are still serious shortfalls in fulfilling our Group’s objectives, and that our countries individually and collectively now face ongoing and emerging challenges, including the slowdown of the global economy and its effects on our countries and the lack of adequate systemic action and accountability to address the causes and effects of the global financial and economic crises, thus creating the risk of continuing with the pattern of crisis cycles.

11.     We also note the gaps in many of our countries in meeting the needs of employment, food, water, health care, education, housing, physical infrastructure and energy of our people, as well as the looming environmental crisis, including the negative impacts of climate change in developing countries, the increasing shortage of drinking water and the loss of biodiversity.

12.     We stress that imbalances in the global economy and the inequitable structures and outcomes in the trading, financial, monetary and technological systems led to the establishment of our Group. Nevertheless, these imbalances still prevail today in some ways with even more adverse effects on developing countries. Therefore, we pledge to continue and intensify our efforts to strive for a fair, just and equitable international order oriented towards the fulfilment of the development needs of developing countries.

13.     We emphasize that the rationale for the establishment of our Group 50 years ago remains actual and valid, and indeed more valid, than at that time. We therefore rededicate ourselves and our countries to strengthening and expanding the unwavering efforts of the Group of 77 and China in all fields towards greater achievement and for the betterment of the lives of our people.

14.     We affirm that the twenty-first century is the time for the countries and the peoples from the South to develop their economies and societies in order to fulfil human needs sustainably, in harmony with nature and respect for Mother Earth and its ecosystems. We agree to build on our traditional values and practices of solidarity and collaboration for mutual benefit and on the strength of our people, to achieve progress in our countries and in South-South cooperation.

15.     We emphasize that our major priorities are promoting sustained, inclusive and equitable economic growth, creating greater opportunities for all, reducing inequalities, raising basic standards of living, fostering equitable social development and inclusion, and promoting the integrated and sustainable management of natural resources and ecosystems that supports, inter alia, economic, social and human development while facilitating ecosystem conservation, regeneration and restoration and resilience in the face of new and emerging challenges.

16.     We reaffirm that the main strength of the Group of 77 has been and will be its unity and solidarity, its vision of fair, just and equitable multilateral relations, the commitment of its member States to the well-being and prosperity of the peoples of the South as well as our commitment to mutually beneficial cooperation.

17.     We emphasize that each country has the sovereign right to decide its own development priorities and strategies and consider that there is no “one size fits all” approach. We stress the need for international rules to allow policy space and policy flexibility for developing countries, as they are directly related to the development strategies of national Governments. We further emphasize the need for policy space to enable our countries to formulate development strategies expressing national interests and differing needs which are not always taken into account by international economic policymaking in the process of integration with the global economy.

18.     We are concerned about the current state of the global economy and the state of global economic governance and the need for strong recovery. We believe that the world is confronted with the worst financial and economic crisis since the Great Depression, and we are alarmed by the adverse effects this crisis is having especially on developing countries. We believe the crisis has highlighted long-standing systemic fragilities and imbalances in the global economy, and further exposed the inadequacy and undemocratic nature of global economic governance. New attempts must now be made to establish proper global economic governance, with the full voice, representation and participation of developing countries in discussions and decision-making.

19.     We recognize the high importance of sustaining social protection and fostering job creation even in times of economic crisis, and take note with satisfaction of the encouraging examples of policies that allow countries to reduce poverty, increase social inclusion and create new and better jobs in recent years.

20.     We view with concern the increased concentration and the asymmetric distribution of wealth and income in the world, which have created wide inequality between developed and developing countries. This level of inequality is unjustifiable and cannot be tolerated in a world where poverty is still prevalent, resources are being depleted and environmental degradation is increasing. We call for global actions to reduce inequalities at all levels. We also pledge to address inequality in our own countries.

21.     We note with concern the influence of large corporations, mainly from developed countries, on the global economy, and its negative effects on the social, economic and environmental development of some developing countries, particularly regarding the barriers this may pose for the entry of new enterprises in the global market. In this regard, we call for concrete measures from the international community to address these negative effects and to promote international competition and increased market access for developing countries, including policies that foster the growth of small and medium-sized enterprises in developing countries, the removal of trade barriers that inhibit value addition in origin countries, such as tariff peaks and tariff escalation, as well as capacity-building on competition law, tax policy regulations and social corporate responsibility.

22.     We emphasize that transnational corporations have a responsibility to respect all human rights and should refrain from causing environmental disasters and affecting the well-being of peoples.

23.     We recognize the progress achieved in sustainable development at the regional, national, subnational and local levels and we reaffirm the importance of supporting developing countries in their efforts to eradicate poverty by empowering the poor and people in vulnerable situations, promoting developing sustainable agriculture as well as full and productive employment and decent work for all, complemented by effective social policies, including social protection floors.

24.     We fully respect the principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations and international law, particularly as they relate to equality among States, respect for the independence of States, national sovereignty, territorial integrity and non-interference in the internal affairs of States, and stress that those principles and purposes inspire our full commitment to multilateralism and the search for a more just and equitable international economic system that offers opportunities to raise the standard of living of our peoples.

25.     We are deeply aware that decades after political independence, some developing countries are still in the grip of economic dependence on the structures and vagaries of the global economy and on the developed countries and their economic entities. Such dependence, especially by poor and vulnerable countries, limits the extent of our real political independence as well. Therefore, we pledge to unite our efforts to continue striving for economic independence and to gather under the umbrella of the Group of 77 and China as well as other organizations of the South to make progress on this.

26.     We recall the decisions taken at the second South Summit in Doha (2005) to work to ensure that programmes and policies designed in the context of globalization fully respect the principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations and international law, particularly as they relate to equality among States, respect for the independence of States, national sovereignty, territorial integrity and non-interference in the internal affairs of States, and to stress that those principles and purposes inspire our full commitment to multilateralism and the search for a more just and equitable international economic system that offers opportunities to raise the standard of living of our peoples.

27.     We also recall the decision taken at the Group of 77 and China Summit in Doha (2005) to work towards the realization of the right to self-determination of peoples living under colonial or other forms of alien domination or foreign occupation, which adversely affects their social and economic development, and to call on the international community to take all necessary measures to bring an end to the continuation of foreign occupation, in accordance with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and international law.

28.     We reaffirm that indigenous peoples have the right to maintain and strengthen their distinct political, legal, economic, social and cultural institutions, while retaining their right to participate fully, if they so choose, in the political, economic, social and cultural life of the State. In this regard, we emphasize the need to respect and safeguard indigenous cultural identities, knowledge and traditions in our countries.

Part II: Development in the national context

Approaches for sustainable development

29.     We stress the need to further mainstream sustainable development at all levels, integrating economic, social and environmental aspects and recognizing their interlinkages, so as to achieve sustainable development in all its dimensions.

30.     We reaffirm that there are different approaches, visions, models and tools available to each country, in accordance with its national circumstances and priorities to achieve sustainable development in its three dimensions, which is our overarching goal (United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development). In some countries there is an approach of “living well” as holistic development aimed at achieving the material, cultural and spiritual needs of societies in a context of harmony with nature.

31.     We acknowledge that the Earth and its ecosystems are our home and we are convinced that, in order to achieve a just balance among the economic, social and environmental needs of present and future generations, it is necessary to promote harmony with nature and the Earth. We also recognize that “Mother Earth” is a common expression for planet Earth in a number of countries and regions, which reflects the interdependence that exists among human beings, other living species and the planet we all inhabit.

32.     We welcome the celebration held in 2011 of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Declaration on the Right to Development, which is a major landmark document that establishes the right of developing countries to act to achieve development and the right of people to participate in and benefit from development.

33.     In this context, we reaffirm that development is a comprehensive economic, social, cultural and political process that aims at the constant improvement of the well-being of the entire population and of all individuals on the basis of their active, free and meaningful participation in development and in the fair distribution of benefits resulting therefrom as recognized in the Declaration on the Right to Development.

34.     We further reaffirm the proclamation in the Declaration on the Right to Development that the right to development is an inalienable human right by virtue of which every person and all peoples are entitled to participate in, contribute to and enjoy economic, social, cultural and political development, in which all human rights and fundamental freedoms can be fully realized as recognized in the Declaration.

Improving the practice of democracy

35.     We consider that democracy is a universal value based on the freely expressed will of the people to determine their own political, economic, social and cultural systems and their full participation in all aspects of their lives. We reaffirm that while all democracies share common features, there is no single model of democracy and that democracy does not belong to any country or region, and further reaffirm the necessity of due respect for sovereignty, unity and territorial integrity and the right to self-determination, and the rejection of any attempt to break down constitutional and democratic order legitimately established by the peoples.

36.     We call for an end to the use of media in any way that might disseminate distorted information against States members of the Group of 77 in complete disregard of the principle of international law.

37.     We express our deep indignation and rejection with regard to the facts related to the surprise withdrawal of overflight and landing permits for the presidential aircraft on which President Evo Morales Ayma of the Plurinational State of Bolivia and his party were travelling on 2 July 2013. These facts constitute unfriendly and unjustifiable acts that have also put at serious risk the safety of President Morales. We make public our greater solidarity and demand clarification of facts.

National sovereignty and benefits over natural resources

38.     We affirm that States have, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of international law, the sovereign right to exploit their own resources pursuant to their own environmental and developmental policies, and the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction.

39.     We also reaffirm that the right of peoples and nations to permanent sovereignty over the natural wealth and resources must be exercised in the interest of their national development and of the well-being of the people of the State concerned.

40.     While emphasizing the sovereignty of our countries and peoples over their natural wealth, we are also aware of our duty to conserve and sustainably manage and use these resources and ensure the conditions for nature and ecosystems to have the capacity to regenerate, for the benefit of present and future generations. We also recognize that the sustainable use of natural resources is an effective way to achieve economic growth while reducing poverty and environmental degradation.

41.     We take note of and respect the decisions of some countries that decided to nationalize or to reclaim control of their natural resources in order to obtain greater benefits for their people, especially the poor, and to invest in the economic diversification, industrialization and social programmes.

42.     We urge that technical and capacity-building assistance be provided to developing countries at the international, regional and national levels to support them in obtaining the maximum benefits from the extraction and use of those resources in line with sustainable development, taking into account the full exercise of the sovereign right of our countries over their natural resources.

Eradication of poverty

43.     We recognize that poverty is an affront to human dignity and stress that poverty eradication is the greatest global challenge facing the world today, and we attach the highest priority to poverty eradication in the United Nations post-2015 development agenda to be supported by effective and adequate means of implementation and strengthened global partnership for development, and which entails, among other objectives, the promotion of employment and decent work for all, the improvement of access to social services, the eradication of illiteracy and diseases as well as integrated, coordinated and coherent national and regional strategies.

44.     We express our deep concern for the constraints on the fight against poverty arising from the crises, in particular the world financial and economic crisis, the continuing food insecurity, the volatility of capital flows and the extreme volatility of commodity prices, energy accessibility and the challenges posed by climate change to developing countries.

45.     We further stress that, in order to enable Governments of developing countries to effectively eradicate poverty, developing countries must ensure national ownership of their own development agenda, which entails preserving their own policy space backed by a strong political commitment to reduce poverty in line with their national priorities and circumstances. As such, Governments of developing countries must formulate their own development strategies to assist the poor through policies and actions, including on, but not limited to, strong, sustained and inclusive economic growth, the generation of employment as a priority, in particular for the young population, the improvement of the provision of universal and affordable access to basic services, the provision of a well-designed social protection system, the empowerment of individuals to seize economic opportunities, and measures to ensure the protection of the environment.

46.     We recall the United Nations Convention against Corruption, which is the most comprehensive and universal instrument on corruption, and we recognize the need to continue promoting ratification of or accession to the Convention and its full implementation. We also recognize that fighting corruption at all levels is a priority and that corruption is a serious barrier to effective resource mobilization and allocation and diverts resources away from activities that are vital for poverty eradication and sustainable development.

47.     We take note with appreciation of the ancestral and traditional values of some of our peoples such as the Andean principles of Ama Suwa (“do not be a thief”), Ama Llulla(“do not be a liar”) and Ama Qhilla (“do not be lazy”), which in accordance with all human rights and fundamental freedoms contribute to efforts to prevent and tackle corruption.

Reducing inequality

48.     We emphasize that the problem of inequality is even more acute today than ever because of the prevalence of extreme wealth while poverty and hunger continue to exist and this is aggravated, inter alia, by unsustainable patterns of consumption and production mainly in developed countries. We affirm that any benefit from economic growth has to be equitably shared and must benefit the people in vulnerable situations in our communities, and we therefore call once again for concerted actions to reduce inequalities at all levels.

49.     We are gravely concerned at the inadequacy of measures to narrow the widening gap between the developed and the developing countries, and within countries, which has contributed to, inter alia, deepening poverty and has adversely affected the full enjoyment of all human rights, in particular in developing countries.

50.     We also note with concern that high levels of inequality within and among countries continue to have a negative impact on all aspects of human development and are especially harmful to people in vulnerable situations who are affected by intersecting inequalities. We therefore urge countries, including through the support of international cooperation, to scale up efforts to provide equal access to opportunities and outcomes to all levels of society in accordance with national policies.

51.     We understand that sustainable development involves a change in the order of priorities from the generation of material wealth to the satisfaction of human needs in harmony with nature. The excessive orientation towards profit neither respects Mother Earth nor takes into account human needs. The continuation of this unequal system will lead to further inequality.

Sustained and inclusive economic growth

52.     We affirm that sustained, inclusive and equitable economic growth is necessary to eradicate poverty, provide jobs and raise the living standards of our people and generate public revenues to finance social policies. We note that historical evidence has shown that no country has ever achieved constant improvements in living standards and human development without sustaining a steady pace of economic growth. We therefore urge the international community and the United Nations to assist developing countries in attaining high and adequate economic growth over a sustained period.

53.     We also realize that high economic growth, although necessary, is not sufficient in itself. We realize that economic growth must be sustained and inclusive by generating jobs and lifting the incomes of peoples in vulnerable situations, especially the poor and the most in need. Economic growth should also be environmentally and socially sound and, to achieve this, developing countries require, among other sources, financial and technological support from developed countries according to national plans.

Creation of employment

54.     We express the view that the capacity to generate full employment and decent work is fundamentally linked to reviving and enhancing productive development strategies, through adequate finance, investment and trade policies. In this regard, we reaffirm the need for significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources and the effective use of financing, in order to give strong support to developing countries in their efforts to promote sustainable development. We also stress the need to maintain coherence between macroeconomic and job creation policies in order to ensure inclusive and resilient global economic growth.

55.     We are deeply concerned about the continuing high levels of unemployment and underemployment, particularly among young people, and affirm our commitment to reducing unemployment through employment-intensive macroeconomic and development policies. We affirm the need to launch an intergovernmental process, within the United Nations, to include the issue of youth employment and youth concerns in the current process of the post-2015 development agenda. We also affirm the importance of ensuring decent livelihoods for farmers in our countries.

56.     We affirm the need to launch an intergovernmental process within the United Nations to develop a global strategy on improving employment skills and generating youth employment.

Providing basic services for our people

57.     We are concerned that there remains a substantial and increasing gap between the world’s rich and poor, which is due not only to an unequal distribution of income, but also to unequal access to basic resources and services, which hinders the creation of economic opportunities for all.

58.     We recognize that the State has an essential role to play to ensure that basic services are accessible to all and to address the unequal and discriminatory distribution of and access to them.

59.     We also reaffirm our resolve to act to implement the right of our people to access basic services.

60.     We reaffirm our commitments regarding the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation, to be progressively implemented and realized for our populations with full respect for national sovereignty.

61.     We call upon donor countries and international organizations to advance in the provision of financial resources, capacity-building and technology transfer, through international assistance to and cooperation with developing countries, in order to scale up efforts to provide safe, clean, accessible and affordable drinking water and sanitation for all.

Access to public health and medicines

62.     We recognize that universal health coverage means that everyone has access, without discrimination, to a set of basic medical services of promotion, prevention, cure and rehabilitation that meet the needs and are determined nationally, as well as to essential quality, safe, affordable and effective medicines while ensuring that the use of these services does not entail serious economic difficulties for users, especially people in vulnerable situations.

63.     We also recognize that many developing countries do not have the financial or human resources or the infrastructure to implement the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. Therefore, we call upon developed countries and relevant international organizations to provide the adequate financial resources and technology to developing countries that will complement their efforts to have policies and measures that provide universal health coverage and basic health services for all.

64.     We note with great concern that non-communicable diseases have become an epidemic of significant proportions, undermining the sustainable development of member States. In that sense, we acknowledge the effectiveness of tobacco control measures for the improvement of health. We reaffirm the right of member States to protect public health and, in particular, to ensure universal access to medicines and medical diagnostic technologies, if necessary, including through the full use of the flexibilities in the Doha Declaration on the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement) and Public Health.

65.     We recall paragraph 142 of the outcome document of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, in which Heads of State and Government reaffirmed the right to use, to the fullest extent, the provisions contained in the TRIPS Agreement, the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, the decision of the General Council of the World Trade Organization (WTO) of 30 August 2003 on the implementation of paragraph 6 of the Doha Declaration and, when formal acceptance procedures are completed, the amendment to article 31 of the TRIPS Agreement, which provide flexibilities for the protection of public health, and in particular to promote access to medicines for all and encourage the provision of assistance to developing countries in this regard. We affirm the importance of taking advantage of the use of TRIPS flexibilities in order to promote the people’s health and access to medicines. We call upon developed countries to fully respect the right of developing countries to make full use of TRIPS flexibilities and to refrain from taking actions, including trade measures, to prevent or dissuade developing countries from exercising this right.

66.     We are concerned about the increasing problem of antimicrobial resistance to existing drugs, including those against tuberculosis and malaria. As a result, increasing numbers of patients, especially in developing countries, face the prospect of dying from preventable and/or treatable diseases. We urge the international health authorities and organizations, especially the World Health Organization (WHO), to take urgent action and to work together upon request with developing countries that do not have adequate resources to address this problem.

Agricultural development and food security

67.     We recall that food security and nutrition are essential elements for achieving sustainable development and express concern that developing countries are vulnerable to, among others, the adverse impacts of climate change, further threatening food security.

68.     We reaffirm that hunger is a violation of human dignity and call for urgent measures to be taken at the national, regional and international levels to eliminate it. We also reaffirm the right of everyone to have access to safe and nutritious food in accordance with their right to adequate food and the fundamental right to be free from hunger, in order to develop and maintain their full physical and mental capacities. We also acknowledge that food security and nutrition are essential to sustainable development and have become a pressing global challenge and, in this regard, we further reaffirm our commitment to enhancing food security and access to adequate, safe and nutritious food for present and future generations in line with the Five Rome Principles for Sustainable Global Food Security, adopted on 16 November 2009, including for children under the age of 2, and through, as appropriate, national, regional and global food security and nutrition strategies.

69.     We denounce that subsidies and other market distortions driven by developed countries have seriously affected the agricultural sector of developing countries, limiting the ability of this key sector to significantly contribute to the eradication of poverty and to sustained, inclusive economic growth and equitable, sustainable development, food security and rural development. We call for the immediate elimination of all forms of agricultural subsidies and other market-distorting measures taken by developed countries that are not in compliance with WTO rules. We urge developed countries to show flexibility and political will to adequately address these fundamental concerns of developing countries in the Doha Round of trade negotiations.

70.     We reiterate our commitment to conclude multilateral disciplines on fisheries subsidies which give effect to the WTO Doha Development Agenda and the Hong Kong ministerial mandates to strengthen disciplines on subsidies in the fisheries sector, including through the prohibition of certain forms of fisheries subsidies that contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, recognizing that appropriate and effective special and differential treatment for developing and least developed countries should be an integral part of the WTO fisheries subsidies negotiation, taking into account the importance of the sector to development priorities, poverty reduction, and livelihood and food security concerns.

71.     We emphasize the need to strengthen the capacity of our countries, especially through international cooperation, to safeguard and enhance our people’s nutrition through the promotion of their productive cultural and environmental practices.

72.     We also emphasize the urgent need to increase efforts at the national, regional and international levels to address food security and agriculture development as an integral part of the international development agenda. We demand sustained funding and increased targeted investment to enhance world food production and call for new and additional financial resources from all sources to achieve sustainable agriculture development and food security.

73.     We further emphasize the need to strengthen the agricultural sector as part of the post-2015 agenda with its means of implementation, to achieve food security, stressing the importance of including the knowledge, practices and technologies of indigenous peoples, rural communities and small- and medium-scale farmers in national, regional and international strategies aimed at achieving food security.

74.     We welcome the adoption by the General Assembly of resolution 68/177 on the right to food and resolution 68/233 on agricultural development, food security and nutrition. We also welcome the Second International Conference on Nutrition, organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and WHO, to be held at FAO headquarters in Rome from 19 to 21 November 2014, which aims to approve the nutrition policy framework for the coming decades and to determine priorities for international cooperation in the field of nutrition in the short and medium term.

75.     We welcome the decision of the Director General of FAO to appoint for the second year Evo Morales Ayma, President of the Plurinational State of Bolivia, and Nadine Heredia Alarcón, First Lady of Peru, as Special Ambassadors of Quinoa, recognizing their leadership and commitment in the fight against hunger and malnutrition and that the Bolivian and Peruvian Governments showed the world the benefits and quality of that Andean food source.

76.     We reaffirm that quinoa’s biodiversity and nutritional value make it central to providing food security and nutrition and to eradicating poverty, as well as to promoting the traditional knowledge of the Andean indigenous peoples, contributing to the achievement of food security, nutrition and poverty eradication and raising awareness of their contribution to social, economic and environmental development, and sharing good practices on implementation.

77.     We call for the creation of conditions for the development of economic opportunities for the benefit of small-scale and family farmers, peasant and indigenous peoples and communities, and the creation of options for connecting them with consumers, as part of the national strategies for the realization of the right to food.

78.     We recognize the positive role of small-scale and family farmers, including women, cooperatives, indigenous peoples and local communities in developing countries, and their knowledge and practices, in the conservation and sustainable use of seeds, agrobiodiversity and biodiversity associated with food production of present and future generations.

79.     We stress the need to address the root causes of excessive food price volatility, including its structural causes, at all levels, and the need to manage the risks linked to excessively volatile prices in agricultural commodities and their consequences for global food security and nutrition, as well as for small-scale farmers and poor urban dwellers.

80.     We call for the prioritization of development in the WTO Doha Round of negotiations in accordance with the Doha Development Agenda, including food security. We call for the promotion of the livelihoods of small-scale farmers and rural development in developing countries. In this context, we urge WTO members to adopt a permanent solution to the issue of public stock holding and food security for developing countries, as agreed by the WTO Ministerial Decision adopted in Bali, Indonesia, in 2013, as soon as possible.

Sustainable family farming

81.     We declare that family farms and small farms are an important basis for sustainable food production aimed at achieving food security (General Assembly resolution 66/222). In this framework, support should be given to the economic activities of sustainable family farming, taking into account the traditional knowledge of such farmers, in order to improve their situation and development, in particular promoting their access to financial services, productive resources and agricultural inputs such as land, seeds, appropriate technology, transport and information.

82.     We will promote comprehensive and complementary national and regional actions for production, access and consumption based on integral, multisectoral and participatory planning, reassessing and strengthening sustainable family farming, small-scale farmers, indigenous peoples and Afro-descendants.

Industrialization and infrastructure

83.     We affirm that industrial development and value addition, together with science, technology and innovation, are, among others, essential elements for developing countries to attain higher development levels in a sustained way, as the industrialization process can generate higher productivity, more jobs and skills and positive spillover effects on the economy. Therefore, we urge developed countries to assist developing countries in boosting industrialization in their development strategies and policies and in promoting inclusive sustainable industrial development, in accordance with their national interests.

84.     We note that many developing countries are still overly dependent on commodities and that they should explore industrial diversification strategies by, inter alia, enhancing value-adding productive capacities.

85.     We call on relevant international organizations and request international cooperation mechanisms to provide adequate assistance to developing countries, including through technology transfer, to develop their capacities to design and implement industrialization strategies and policies, in accordance with their national priorities.

86.     We call for the international trading system to respect and reinforce the policy space of developing countries for the promotion and growth of our industrial development and for the design and implementation of our industrial strategies. In this regard, we call for the revision of all rules within the world trading system that affect the policy space of developing countries.

87.     We affirm that the development of reliable and affordable infrastructure, regional connectivity, and its appropriate interlinkage through science, technology and innovation, including transport, roads, energy and telecommunications, as well as the promotion of market access for exports coming from developing countries, are essential elements in improving the quality of life of our people and in the sustainable development of our countries.

88.     In this regard, we urge developed countries and international organizations, in accordance with internationally agreed commitments, to provide adequate financial assistance to support the transfer of reliable and affordable technologies and to promote capacity-building, taking into account national priorities.

89.     We urge developed countries to provide technical assistance, technology transfer and financial resources to enable our countries to industrialize and develop our infrastructure in ways that are environmentally sustainable.

90.     We emphasize in this regard the importance of technical assistance for industrial development in member States with the aim of adopting cleaner, resource-based and energy-efficient sustainable consumption and production patterns, including cleaner fossil fuel technologies.

91.     We welcome the initiative of the Plurinational State of Bolivia, as Chair of the Group of 77 and China, to organize the Meeting of Ministers of Industrialization and counterparts on the issue of governance of natural resources and industrialization, in coordination with the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, the Economic Commission for Africa, the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific and the Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia, to take place in Tarija in August 2014.

92.     We welcome the Lima Declaration: Towards Inclusive and Sustainable Industrial Development, which was adopted at the fifteenth session of the General Conference of UNIDO, held in Lima in December 2013, as an important step in our common endeavours to achieve sustainable development and the eradication of poverty.

Inclusion of women in development

93.     We recall the outcome of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, reaffirm the vital role of women and the need for full and equal opportunities for their participation and leadership in all areas of sustainable development, and decide to accelerate the implementation of our respective commitments in this regard as contained in the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, as well as in Agenda 21, the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, the United Nations Millennium Declaration and the Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development.

94.     We also recognize that the potential of women to engage in, contribute to and benefit from sustainable development as leaders, participants and agents of change has not been fully realized. We support prioritizing measures to promote gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls in all spheres of our societies. We resolve to unlock the potential of women as drivers of sustainable development through many measures and commit to creating an enabling environment for improving the situation of women and girls everywhere, particularly in rural areas and local communities and among indigenous peoples and ethnic minorities.

95.     We are committed to ensure equal rights and opportunities for women in political and economic decision-making and resource allocation, to give women equal rights with men to economic resources, and to ensure access to education, finance, information and communications technologies, markets, legal assistance and other basic services, including health-care services, including safe, effective, affordable and acceptable modern methods of family planning.

96.     We recall our respective commitments under General Assembly resolution 61/143and other relevant resolutions on this matter, recognize that violence against women seriously violates all human rights of women, and therefore agree to take action to eliminate all forms of violence, including feminicide and discrimination against women and girls, by means of a more systematic, comprehensive, multisectoral and sustained approach, adequately supported and facilitated by strong institutional mechanisms and financing, through national action plans, including those supported by international cooperation and, where appropriate, national development plans, including poverty eradication strategies and programme-based and sector-wide approaches.

97.     We reaffirm the commitment to work together towards a post-2015 development agenda with a gender perspective.

98.     We urge the need to tackle critical remaining challenges for women and girls through a transformative and comprehensive approach and call for gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls to be reflected as a stand-alone sustainable development goal and to be integrated through targets with inclusive policies to overcome poverty and foster social and economic development in our countries.

Indigenous peoples

99.     We urge efforts towards the implementation of the rights of indigenous peoples to their lands, natural resources, identity and culture, in accordance with national legislation. We reaffirm our respective commitments to implement our legal obligations, including, as appropriate, Convention No. 169 of the International Labour Organization, as well as to promote the implementation of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.

100.   We reaffirm the value and the diversity of the cultures and the forms of social organization of indigenous peoples and their holistic traditional scientific knowledge, innovations and practices, which play a significant role in strengthening the livelihoods of the local populations, ensuring food security and addressing climate change.

101.   We stress the importance of indigenous peoples in the achievement of sustainable development in developing countries and their critical role in the social, economic and political processes of our countries, while strengthening the local views and values referred to as the holistic views of Mother Earth.

102.   We reaffirm the importance of the role of collective action and the efforts of indigenous and local communities in conserving biodiversity, considering their critical role in the stewardship and sustainable management of natural renewable resources.

103.   We consider that mitigation of and adaptation to climate change are contingent upon different sociocultural contexts, taking particular account of indigenous peoples and local communities and their traditional knowledge systems and practices, including their holistic view of community and environment, as a major means of adapting to climate change.

104.   We call for strengthening the interscientific dialogue between traditional and indigenous knowledge systems with modern sciences in the context of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services and of the conceptual framework of “Living well in balance and harmony with Mother Earth”, approved by the Platform.

105.   We welcome the convening of the high-level plenary meeting of the sixty-ninth session of the General Assembly, to be known as the World Conference on Indigenous Peoples, to be held in New York on 22 and 23 September 2014, with the purpose of sharing insights and best practices on the implementation of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. The action-oriented outcome document of this Conference should contribute to the realization of the rights of indigenous peoples and the pursuit of the objectives of the Declaration, and promote the achievement of all internationally agreed development goals.

106.   We take note of the Special Declaration on the Coca Leaf of the Heads of State and Government of the Latin American and Caribbean States within the framework of the Summit of Heads of State and Government of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, held in Havana on 29 January 2014, which acknowledges the importance of preserving the cultural and traditional practices of indigenous peoples in the context of respecting all their human and fundamental rights, in conformity with the relevant international instruments. In this context, the Heads of State and Government recognize coca leaf chewing (akuliku, or chacchado) as an ancestral cultural manifestation of the people of the Andean region that must be respected by the international community and express interest in knowing the results of scientific research conducted by renowned institutes and universities of the international community on the properties of the coca leaf.

Part III: South-South cooperation

107.   We reaffirm the Nairobi outcome document of the High-level United Nations Conference on South-South Cooperation, therefore recognize the importance and different history and particularities of South-South cooperation, and reaffirm our view of South-South cooperation as a manifestation of solidarity among peoples and countries of the South that contributes to their national well-being, their national and collective self-reliance and the attainment of internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals. South-South cooperation and its agenda have to be set by countries of the South and should continue to be guided by the principles of respect for national sovereignty, national ownership and independence, equality, non-conditionality, non-interference in domestic affairs and mutual benefit.

108.   We reaffirm the importance of strengthening South-South cooperation, especially in the current international economic environment, and reiterate our support for South-South cooperation as a strategy to sustain the development efforts of developing countries and as a means of enhancing their participation in the global economy. We reiterate the position of the Group that South-South cooperation is a complement to, rather than a substitute for, North-South cooperation and reaffirm that South-South cooperation is a collective endeavour of developing countries based on the principle of solidarity and premises, conditions and objectives that are specific to the historic and political context of developing countries and to their needs and expectations, and that as such, South-South cooperation deserves its own separate and independent promotion, as reaffirmed in the Nairobi outcome document. In this context, we stress that South-South cooperation and its agenda must be driven by the countries of the South. As such, South-South cooperation, which is critical for developing countries, requires long-term vision and a global institutional arrangement, as envisioned by the Second South Summit.

109.   We welcome the convening of the High-level Panel of Eminent Personalities of the South in Natadola, Fiji, from 7 to 9 May 2013, in accordance with the relevant mandate of the second South Summit. We also welcome the Panel’s conclusions and recommendations on the future landscape of South-South cooperation as an important contribution to the further development of the Development Platform for the South. We reiterate the framework and principles of South-South cooperation first endorsed by the Ministers for Foreign Affairs of the Group of 77 at their 32nd annual meeting, held in New York on 26 September 2008, which the Panel also used as a basis for their discussions.

110.   We welcome the conclusion of the third round of the Global System of Trade Preferences, which is a tool to promote and strengthen South-South trade integration, and call upon more developing countries to participate in the Global System.

111.   We also note and welcome the increase in regional cooperation initiatives that concretely manifest South-South cooperation and integration in various areas, such as finance, banking, trade, health care and food production. We hope that these initiatives will benefit not only the participants of the regional programmes but also other developing countries. We call for further initiatives in the future, as well as concrete ways in which developing countries can share experiences and good practices so as to spread these South-South initiatives.

112.   We encourage our countries to exchange experiences and best practices with regard to the equal access by all to basic services.

113.   We stress that the High-level Committee on South-South Cooperation of the General Assembly is the central multilateral policymaking body in the United Nations system to review and assess global and system-wide progress and support for South-South development cooperation, including triangular cooperation, and to provide overall guidance on future directions.

114.   We also stress that South-South cooperation, as an important element of international cooperation for development, is not a substitute for, but is rather a complement to, North-South cooperation and its agenda has to be set by countries of the South. We support the integration of South-South and triangular cooperation in the policies and strategic framework of funds and programmes of the United Nations system, as well as its strengthening through the system-wide provision of additional resources, including through financial and human resources to the United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation, and recognize that the Office, currently hosted by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), constitutes a separate entity with a distinct legal nature, entrusted with the coordination on a global and United Nations system-wide basis for promoting and facilitating initiatives related to South-South cooperation for development.

115.   In this regard, we request the establishment of a more formalized and strengthened inter-agency mechanism for the United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation, with a view to encouraging joint support for South-South and triangular initiatives, as well as sharing information on development activities and results achieved by various funds, agencies and organizations in support ofSouth-South and triangular cooperation.

116.   We also call upon the United Nations development system to promote transfer of technologies from developed countries for the benefit of developing countries to address issues of poverty eradication and sustainable development, and in this context encourage, when possible, technology cooperation among the countries of the South.

117.   We acknowledge the role played by the South Centre in supporting the Group of 77. We call upon the members of the Group to further support the Centre and call upon the Centre to expand its activities for the benefit of developing countries. We encourage organizations of developing countries, including the South Centre, to come up with ideas and suggest action plans to further operationalize South-South cooperation.

Part IV: Global challenges

Global partnership for development

118.   We stress the need for a new and stronger commitment by developed countries to international cooperation aimed at supporting the fulfilment of the development aspirations of developing countries. As part of the Millennium Development Goals, a commitment was made to a global partnership for development, which was the international cooperation dimension of the Millennium Development Goals framework. However, we note with concern the significant shortfall in the partnership under the Goals, which contributed to the lack of achievement of many goals and targets. We therefore call for the urgent implementation of all commitments under the global partnership for development so as to overcome the gaps identified in the reports of the Millennium Development Goals Gap Task Force.

119.   We also call upon leaders of the developed countries to agree and commit to a new phase of international cooperation through a strengthened and scaled-up global partnership for development, which should be the centrepiece and anchor for both the sustainable development goals and the post-2015 development agenda. Such an enhanced global partnership should include the issues of providing financial resources to developing countries, official development assistance, debt relief and debt restructuring, trade, technology transfer and greater participation of developing countries in global economic governance.

Official development assistance

120.   We reaffirm that official development assistance remains the main source of international financing for many developing countries and that it is essential as a catalyst for development, facilitating the achievement of national development objectives, including the unfinished business of the Millennium Development Goals, the sustainable development goals and the post-2015 development agenda, in accordance with paragraph 246 of the outcome document of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (“The future we want”).

121.   We stress that developed countries must meet and scale up their existing official development assistance commitments and targets made, inter alia, in the United Nations Millennium Declaration, the Monterrey Consensus, the 2005 World Summit outcome, the Doha Declaration on Financing for Development and in relevant forums. An enhanced predictable and sustainable flow of official development assistance is essential to meet the regular development challenges as well as the new and emerging challenges in developing countries, in particular in least developed countries. We recall the unfulfilled commitment made by developed countries at the meeting held in Gleneagles, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

122.   We urge the developed countries to fulfil their commitment to provide 0.7 per cent of gross national income for official development assistance for developing countries as well as to achieve the target of 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of gross national income for official development assistance to the least developed countries and to increase the target to 1 per cent of gross national income by 2030. We express our deep concern that official development assistance commitments remain unfulfilled.

123.   The global financial and economic crisis cannot be an excuse to avoid fulfilling existing aid commitments by developed countries and to make further commitments. An effective response to the economic crisis requires timely implementation of existing aid commitments and an urgent and unavoidable need for donors to fulfil them. We therefore call upon developed countries collectively to fulfil their official development assistance commitments and to raise overall levels further, keeping in mind that the developing countries will require new, additional and sustainable financial resources to a significant extent and amount in order to implement a wide range of development activities.

124.   We stress the need for ensuring new and additional financial support to developing countries as a key means of implementation for achieving the Millennium Development Goals and the forthcoming sustainable development goals. Financial assistance should be made available without conditionalities, since development strategies should be country-led and take into account the specific conditions, needs and priorities of developing countries. It should be based on the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, with North-South cooperation at its core and South-South and triangular cooperation as a useful complement.

125.   We stress that official development assistance is a key source for financing the development of developing countries that should be used in accordance with their national developmental priorities without conditionalities, and express our deep concern about the attempt made by donor countries, outside United Nations forums, to redefine official development assistance by including other sources of financing that are not linked or related to the development of developing countries, with the objective of disguising the drop in official development assistance flows not based on their agreed commitments, which are still pending fulfilment.

External debt

126.   We are concerned that, with the global economic crisis, the economies of increasing numbers of developing countries are being affected and that some countries are becoming more vulnerable to new external debt problems or even crises. Addressing the external debt problems of developing countries is thus an important part of international cooperation and the enhanced global partnership for development.

127.   We are of the view that debt crises tend to be costly and disruptive and are usually followed by large cuts in public spending and a decline in economic growth and employment. These crises affect developing countries more deeply and those that are heavily indebted are unable to return to the path of growth without international assistance. We recognize the importance of debt relief, including debt cancellation, debt restructuring, debt moratorium and debt audit procedures. Debt restructuring processes should have as their core element a determination of real payment capacity so that they may not adversely affect economic growth and the fulfilment of the unfinished business of the Millennium Development Goals, the sustainable development goals and the post-2015 development agenda. In this regard, we reiterate the urgent need for the international community to examine options for an effective, equitable, durable, independent and development-oriented international debt resolution mechanism, and call upon all countries to promote and contribute to the discussions within the United Nations and other appropriate forums with that objective.

128.   We also recall that sovereign debt management has been a crucial issue for developing countries in past decades and recent years. Recently, a new concern has emerged relating to the activities of vulture funds. Recent examples of the actions of vulture funds in international courts have revealed their highly speculative nature. Such funds pose a risk to all future debt-restructuring processes, both for developing and developed countries. We therefore stress the importance of not allowing vulture funds to paralyse the debt-restructuring efforts of developing countries, and that these funds should not supersede a State’s right to protect its people under international law.

129.   We express serious concern about the substantial increase in the financial stability risks of many developed economies and, in particular, their high structural fragilities in financing sovereign debt created as a result of transferring private risk to the public sector. In this regard, we call for urgent and coherent solutions to reduce sovereign risk in developed economies in order to prevent contagion and to mitigate its impact on the international financial system and on developing countries.

130.   We stress the need to ensure that the economic and monetary policies implemented by developed countries do not affect global aggregate demand and liquidity, owing to the objective of finding surplus in their balance of payments, with negative results in the reduction of global revenues in developing countries.

Reforming the global financial architecture

131.   We affirm the need for reform of the international financial architecture so that we have a financial and monetary system that reflects the realities of the twenty-first century, including a properly regulated international financial sector that reduces and discourages speculative investment, in order for capital markets to be mobilized to achieve sustainable development and play a constructive role in the global development agenda.

132.   We also note the continuation of fundamental problems in the global financial and monetary system, including lack of regulation to ensure financial stability, the problems of the reserve currencies, the volatility in currency exchange rates, the speculative and large cross-border flows of capital and the insufficiency or unavailability of liquidity for developing countries in need of financial resources that face foreign exchange shortfalls or require resources to generate sustainable growth and development. We call for a programme of reforms, with full voice, representation and participation of developing countries, to address these problems.

133.   We note with concern that financial deregulation and financial liberalization have given rise to the massive expansion of speculative financial flows and derivatives trading. The financial and economic crisis of 2008 has illustrated that international finance has created an economy of its own, which has become increasingly disconnected from the real economy of production, direct investment, job creation and wage growth. The adverse effects of financialization include volatile capital flows, excessive commodity and food price fluctuations, rapid shifts in exchange rates and boom-bust cycles of financial crisis and economic recession.

134.   We urge that the reform process of the governance structure of the Bretton Woods institutions be finalized as soon as possible and be much more ambitious, and that an accelerated plan be established for further reforms in representation, participation and parity of voting power for developing countries in the decision-making process within the Bretton Woods institutions and in all discussions on international monetary reform and in the operation of the new arrangements for special drawing rights in the International Monetary Fund (IMF), on the basis of criteria that truly reflect its mandate in the field of development and with the participation of all stakeholders in an equitable, transparent, consultative and inclusive process. In this regard, we call on the General Assembly to launch a process to reform the international financial and monetary system.

135.   We support exploration of the establishment of a United Nations intergovernmental mechanism under the General Assembly, as an entity responsible for monitoring the performance of the global economic and financial system in a comprehensive and sustainable manner. It is important that this mechanism monitor the impact of certain international financial flows and policies that are systemically important to prevent the spread of economic and financial crisis among countries.

Reforming the credit rating system

136.   We stress that international efforts to reregulate the financial sector should include the credit rating agencies. Governments should limit their regulatory reliance on credit rating agencies and reform legal regimes to hold them liable for negligent behaviour in order to suppress conflicts of interest and ensure integrity, accountability and transparency.

137.   We also stress the need for a more transparent international credit rating system that takes fully into account the needs, concerns and peculiarities of developing countries, especially heavily indebted developing countries. In this regard, we express concern about the extent of soundness of the methodology used by the major credit rating agencies. We emphasize that greater transparency and competition among rating agencies is necessary to avoid oligopolistic tendencies and their negative effects. We reiterate that an inadequate assessment of the solvency of debtors has the potential to cause or exacerbate crises, rendering the financial system more vulnerable. It is necessary to continue the discussions at the United Nations and other venues on the role of credit rating agencies, with a view to proposing concrete policies aimed at reducing dependency on them by enhancing their supervision and increasing transparency and competition through the establishment of independent assessment mechanisms.

Global economic governance

138.   We affirm that the current world financial and economic crisis and its consequences for development have exposed the gaps and failures in global economic governance, including within the international financial institutions, and the urgent need for a global, universal and integrated response by the international community. We note with deep concern that seven years after the outbreak of the global crisis, there has been little progress made to strengthen the systemic, regulatory and structural aspects of the global financial system. Moreover, the lack of participation by developing countries in general in global economic issues and governance persists; this is a matter of grave concern because the workings of the global system affect all countries, and this democratic deficit has even more serious consequences for developing countries when the global economy is slowing down or in recession.

139.   We strongly call on the international community to redress the democratic deficit in global economic governance and provide developing countries their rightful place and participation in the governance and decision-making of all the institutions and forums where discussions and decisions are taken on global economic and financial issues.

140.   We affirm that efforts to reform the international financial architecture should therefore be seriously strengthened, should be internationally coordinated and should lead to the full participation of developing countries in international financial and economic decision-making and norm-setting. We call for comprehensive reform of the Bretton Woods institutions, including enhancement of the voting powers of developing countries in a time-bound manner, in order to enable greater equity between developed and developing countries and to eliminate all types of conditionalities tied to aid.

141.   We call for the urgent completion of the 2010 IMF quota formula reform in order to ensure that the quotas and governance of IMF better reflect the relative weight of emerging and developing countries in the global economy. However, the redistribution of voting rights to reflect reality alone will not resolve the structural problems of financial instability and the lack of liquidity for developing countries in need to generate the necessary sustainable growth and development. Also the reform should encompass liquidity creation, including improvement in the special drawing rights for developing countries. IMF must provide more comprehensive and flexible financial responses to the needs of developing countries, without imposing procyclical conditionalities and respecting their need for adequate policy space. Furthermore, leading personnel of the Bretton Woods institutions must be designated on the basis of their individual merits, through an open and fair process of selection. As long as IMF does not reflect the new realities in the global economy and its Director General keeps being designated through a process that lacks any transparency, its legitimacy will remain questionable.

142.   We stress the need to hold a follow-up international conference on financing for development in 2015 to review the implementation of the Monterrey Consensus and the Doha Declaration with a view to contributing to the post-2015 development agenda process.

143.   While respecting the purposes and the principles of the Charter of the United Nations and the intergovernmental nature of the Organization, we recognize the important role of the United Nations in providing an intergovernmental forum, including through international conferences and summits for universal dialogue and consensus on global challenges with the due participation of relevant stakeholders.

144.   We reaffirm the central position of the General Assembly as the chief deliberative policymaking and representative organ of the United Nations, as well as the role of the Assembly in global matters of concern to the international community, as set out in the Charter of the United Nations.

Strengthening and reorienting the United Nations

145.   We reaffirm our commitment to increase the participation of developing countries in the decision-making bodies of multilateral institutions in order to render them more consistent with the current geopolitical reality.

146.   We stress the importance of the central role of the United Nations in global economic governance, which aims at enhancing the global partnership for development with a view to creating a supportive and enabling global environment for the attainment of sustainable development and to ensuring financial and economic stability. In this context, the General Assembly and a strengthened Economic and Social Council could both act to mitigate the impact of the international financial and economic crisis and to ensure the right of developing countries to policy space for sustainable development.

147.   We stress that strengthening of the United Nations and its role in international cooperation for development is essential to respond to current and future challenges and opportunities emanating from the process of globalization. We recognize that the United Nations needs to improve its capabilities and capacities to fully implement its mandates and to ensure the effective delivery of its programmes in the social and economic development fields. In this regard, we urge the Secretary-General to further strengthen the development pillar of the whole Organization, including its Development Account.

148.   We urge developed countries to show real political will, so that in the process of reform of the United Nations, including the strengthening and revitalization of the General Assembly as an emblem of global sovereignty, it can improve its capabilities and capacities to fully implement its mandates and ensure the effective delivery of its programme in the social, environmental and economic development fields.

149.   We stress that strengthening of the United Nations and its role in international cooperation for development is essential to respond to current and future challenges and opportunities emanating from the process of globalization. Within this context, we express our concern over the growing imbalance between assessed and voluntary contributions in the proposed programme budgets of the Organization. We also stress that the level of resources to be approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations must be commensurate with all mandated programmes and activities in order to ensure their full and effective implementation.

150.   We reaffirm that any United Nations Secretariat and management reform efforts, including on the budget process, must not seek to change the intergovernmental, multilateral and international nature of the Organization, but must strengthen the ability of Member States to perform their oversight and monitoring role, and that prior consideration and approval by Member States is essential in all cases where the measures to be implemented fall under the prerogatives of the General Assembly, and in this regard we recall resolution 66/257. We also reiterate the need to increase the representation of developing countries and the representation of women from developing countries, in particular at the senior levels, and to improve geographic distribution in the Secretariat and transparency in the recruitment process.

151.   We call for continued efforts to reform the United Nations, including the revitalization of the General Assembly and a comprehensive reform of the Security Council, which correspond to the collective interests of developing countries.

152.   We express concern over budget cuts that have a negative impact on the implementation of mandates approved by the intergovernmental bodies of the United Nations, particularly in the development pillar, and the growing imbalance between assessed and voluntary contributions.

153.   We call for greater transparency, accountability and oversight by Member States with respect to voluntary and extrabudgetary resources. It is important that resources from voluntary and extrabudgetary contributions be used to support all priorities agreed to by Member States and that they be used strictly in accordance with the intergovernmentally agreed financial regulations and rules of the Organization.

154.   We underscore the central role of the United Nations in global economic governance, as a truly universal and inclusive multilateral forum with unquestioned legitimacy, convening power and normative frameworks. We emphasize the important role that the General Assembly should play in the appointment of the Secretary-General of the United Nations upon the recommendation of the Security Council in accordance with Article 97 of the Charter. In this regard, we stress that the process of selection of the Secretary-General should be inclusive of all Member States, as well as more transparent. Furthermore, we believe that regional rotation, as well as respect for equitable geographical representation, should be taken into account during selection and appointment processes.

155.   We also recognize the importance of increasing the number of nationals from developing countries at the senior level in the Secretariat, in particular in the Senior Management Group.

Technology transfer, science and innovation for development

156.   We believe that science, knowledge and technology integration and innovation should be instruments for promoting peace and people’s sustainable development, well-being and happiness and that they should thus be oriented towards the promotion of the empowerment of the poor, the eradication of poverty and hunger, and the promotion of solidarity and complementarity among and within peoples so that they may live well in harmony with Mother Earth.

157.   We express our concern that science, technology and innovation can be abused as instruments to limit and undermine countries’ sovereignty, sustainable development and poverty eradication.

158.   We call for an end to the use of information and communication technologies, including social networks, in contravention of international law and in detriment to any State, in particular members of the Group of 77 or their citizens.

159.   We reaffirm that technology plays a key role in addressing development challenges across a wide scope of issues, including in food and agriculture, water and sanitation, climate change, energy, industry, chemicals and waste management. Technology transfer, technology integration and the development and promotion of endogenous technologies are important for developing countries to engender economic growth in an environmentally sustainable manner. We call on developed countries to implement their commitments to transfer technology to developing countries and provide access to technology on favourable terms, including concessional and preferential terms, to enable the developing countries to shift to a more sustainable development path.

160.   It is imperative that developed countries recommit themselves to the objective of technology transfer as one of the major components, along with finance, capacity-building and trade, of provision of the means of implementation towards sustainable development for developing countries, and to take actions to bridge the technological gap. We call for the early establishment by the United Nations system of a technology facilitation mechanism that promotes the development, transfer and dissemination of clean and environmentally sound technologies, including cleaner fossil fuel technologies.

161.   We call for regulations and policies on intellectual property to be placed within a development framework, whereby intellectual property rights are oriented towards the promotion of balanced social, economic and environmental development. In this regard, we support the measures taken by developing countries to promote the implementation of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Development Agenda recommendations of 2007. We reiterate our call, made in paragraph 8 (vii) of the 2005 Doha Plan of Action adopted at the second South Summit of the Group of 77, for WIPO to continue to include in its future plans and activities, including legal advice, a development dimension that includes promoting development and access to knowledge for all, pro-development norm-setting, harmonization with the Convention on Biological Diversity rules, establishing development-friendly principles, and the transfer and dissemination of technology.

162.   We also reiterate that the TRIPS Agreement of WTO contains flexibilities, and that it is the right of developing States members of WTO to make use of such flexibilities, as confirmed in the 2001 Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health of WTO, and we support the use of these flexibilities in our countries, with the aim of promoting health, education and economic and social development. We note with great interest and appreciation that some developing countries have successfully made use of some TRIPS flexibilities to promote the use of generic medicines, which are lower in cost and thus greatly increase access to medicines at affordable prices. We reject attempts by any developed country or business interest to pressure developing countries not to exercise their right to make use of TRIPS Agreement flexibilities for social and development purposes and express our solidarity with those developing countries that have come under such pressure.

163.   We stress the need to protect the knowledge of developing countries, indigenous peoples and local communities with regard to genetic resources, biodiversity and traditional knowledge, and especially from continuing attempts by persons or companies to patent such resources and knowledge without the approval of the countries, indigenous peoples and communities concerned.

164.   We call for intensified efforts by our negotiators and policymakers to establish legal mechanisms, internationally or nationally, to prevent biopiracy by requiring disclosure of the country of origin and proof of benefit-sharing arrangements by applicants for such patents. We also call for strong provisions and effective mechanisms for technology transfer, including appropriate treatment of intellectual property, in the international climate change regime in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

Trade

165.   We believe that trade in the context of appropriate policies and rules can be an important tool for economic development. Because of the continuing global financial and economic crisis, there has been a decline in trade growth, which has had a severe impact on many developing countries as the result of the fall in export revenues, trade barriers and trade-distorting subsidies in developed countries, and restricted access to trade finance and reduced investment in production diversification and in the promotion of exports and remains a matter of concern. It is essential to establish and uphold a universal, fair, rules-based, open, pro-development, non‑discriminatory, inclusive and equitable multilateral trading system that contributes to growth, sustainable development and employment, particularly for developing countries.

166.   We call for a timely and successful conclusion to the Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations, which must fully respect its development mandate and place the needs and priorities of developing countries at its centre. Following the WTO Ministerial Conference in Bali in 2013, we call for an inclusive and transparent negotiating process and the prioritizing of the interests and issues of developing countries in the post-Bali programme. We view with concern that some developed countries members of WTO are more interested in gaining market access to developing countries, while they are themselves not willing to take adequate measures to eliminate or reduce protectionism in their agriculture sector or to provide more market access to developing countries.

167.   We reiterate that developed countries should provide effective, sustainably financed trade-related technical assistance and capacity-building tailored to the specific needs and constraints of developing countries, including through the Enhanced Integrated Framework of WTO, in order to address the supply-side and trade-related infrastructure and productive capacity constraints of least developed countries. Likewise, it is crucial for developing countries to have access to financial and technical assistance for capacity-building in order to implement effectively the new WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement. In this context, special focus must be given, among other elements, to those projects and programmes oriented towards developing and strengthening corridors for reducing costs in international transit.

168.   We emphasize the importance of facilitating accession to WTO. The accession process should be accelerated without political impediment and in an expeditious and transparent manner for developing countries, in full compliance with WTO rules. This would contribute to the rapid and full integration of developing countries into the multilateral trading system.

169.   We believe that trade rules, in WTO or in bilateral and regional trade agreements, should enable developing countries to have sufficient policy space so that they can make use of policy instruments and measures that are required for their economic and social development. We reiterate our call for the effective strengthening of the special and differential treatment and less than full reciprocity principles and provisions in WTO so as to broaden the policy space of developing countries and enable them to benefit more from the multilateral trading system. We also call for bilateral trade and investment agreements involving developed and developing countries to have sufficient special and differential treatment for developing countries to enable them to retain adequate policy space for social and economic development.

Migration

170.   We consider that the nexus between migration and development must be addressed comprehensively, mindful of the economic, social and environmental dimensions and include a cultural and human perspective. We recognize the need to address this issue through international, regional or bilateral cooperation and dialogue and through a comprehensive, balanced, coordinated and coherent approach, recognizing the role and responsibilities of countries of origin, transit and destination in promoting and protecting effectively the human rights and fundamental freedoms of all migrants and their families, especially those of women and children, regardless of their migration status.

171.   We note that despite progress in discussion and dialogue and cooperation at the international level, migration remains inadequately reflected in development frameworks, development agendas and sectoral policies at both the national and global levels. Therefore, we are exploring the possibility of a legally binding convention on migration and development to improve the governance of international migration and to protect and promote the human rights of migrants and their contribution to development, regardless of their migratory status.

172.   We acknowledge the important role that migrants play as partners in the development of origin, transit and destination countries, and the need to enhance the protection of all human rights and fundamental freedoms of migrant workers and their families. We also stress the need to continue to consider the recognition of the qualifications and competencies of migrants and their access to low-cost financial services for remittances.

Climate change

173.   We affirm that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is the primary international, intergovernmental forum for negotiating the global response to climate change. In this regard, we stress that the international response to climate change must fully respect the principles, provisions and ultimate objective of the Convention, in particular the principles of equity and of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities.

174.   We reiterate that fulfilling the ultimate objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change will require strengthening the multilateral, rules-based regime under the Convention and therefore further reaffirm the importance of continuing the negotiations on climate change under the Convention in accordance with its principles and provisions and of adopting, in 2015, a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force under the Convention applicable to all parties.

175.   We recall that climate change is one of the most serious global challenges of our times. We underscore the fact that developing countries continue to suffer the most from the adverse impacts of climate change, the increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events and the impact of response measures, even though they are the least responsible for climate change. Accordingly, we call for developed countries to take the lead in responding to climate change. Climate change threatens not only the development prospects of developing countries and their achievement of sustainable development but also the very existence and survival of countries and societies.

176.   We recognize that low-lying and other small island countries, developing countries with low-lying coastal, arid and semi-arid areas or areas liable to floods, drought and desertification, and developing countries with fragile mountainous ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.

177.   We reaffirm the importance of implementing the Warsaw international mechanism for loss and damage associated with climate change impacts adopted at the nineteenth session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, held in Warsaw from 11 to 23 November 2013 (decision 2/CP.19). We also recognize the urgency of taking concrete steps during this year, ahead of the twentieth session of the Conference of the Parties, to be held in Lima, for the immediate operationalization of the mechanism.

178.   We stress that the developed countries, given their historical responsibility, need to take the lead in addressing this challenge in accordance with the principles and provisions of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, particularly the principles of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities and equity, and provide financial and technological support to developing countries in a transparent, adequate and predictable manner under a modality of monitoring, reporting and verification.

179.   We reiterate that the extent to which developing countries will effectively implement their commitments under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change will depend on the effective implementation by developed countries of their commitments under the Convention related to financial resources and transfer of technology and will take fully into account that economic and social development and poverty eradication are the first and overriding priorities of developing countries.

180.   We stress the need to urgently close the ambition gap, and express concern about the lack of fulfilment of commitments by developed countries. In addressing this gap, the focus must not be limited to mitigation only but also address gaps relating to finance, technology and support for capacity-building, balanced with a focus on adaptation to climate change. We emphasize that developed countries must take robust and ambitious mitigation commitments, with ambitious quantitative targets for limiting and reducing emissions, as required by science and mandated by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

181.   We reiterate the urgency of expediting the process of operationalizing the Green Climate Fund and for its early capitalization, and call upon developed countries to meet the goal of mobilizing $100 billion each year by 2020 to address the needs of developing countries.

182.   We affirm our support for the success of the meeting to be held in Venezuela ahead of the twentieth session of the Conference of the Parties, to be held in Lima, and reaffirm the need to achieve progress in negotiations towards an ambitious, balanced, fair and effective agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, in accordance with its principles and provisions, to be agreed in 2015 and to enter into force in 2020 and that actually contributes to the stabilization of the climate system.

Biological diversity

183.   We reaffirm the recognition contained in the outcome document of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development about the severity of global biodiversity loss and degradation of ecosystems, and emphasize that these undermine global development, affecting food security and nutrition, the provision of and access to water, and the health of the rural poor and of people worldwide, including present and future generations. This highlights the importance of the conservation of biodiversity, enhancing habitat connectivity and building ecosystem resilience.

184.   We recognize the importance of the role of the collective actions of the indigenous people and local communities for the protection, use and conservation of biodiversity. We also reaffirm that the traditional knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous peoples and local communities make an important contribution to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and that their wider application can support social well-being and sustainable livelihoods. We further recognize that indigenous peoples and local communities are often most directly dependent on biodiversity and ecosystems and thus are often most immediately affected by their loss and degradation.

185.   We welcome the important outcomes of the eleventh meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, held in Hyderabad, India, in October 2012, especially the commitment to doubling biodiversity-related international financial flows to developing countries by 2015 and at least maintaining this level until 2020 to contribute to the achievement of the Convention’s three objectives. We also call upon the parties to the Convention to review progress made in this context at the twelfth meeting of the Conference of the Parties towards adopting a final target for resource mobilization.

186.   We welcome the realization of the joint briefing held on 30 October 2013 by the United Nations Environment Programme, WIPO, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNDP, UNCTAD, the secretariat of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and the secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity on the implementation of the objectives of the Convention, including actions taken to promote access to genetic resources and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their utilization and associated traditional knowledge. We note that similar interactions should be encouraged, recognizing the respective mandates of the organizations involved, and call upon all Member States, in particular developed countries, to speed up the process for the ratification of the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from Their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity.

187.   We note with deep concern the unprecedented increase in poaching and illegal trade in wildlife and their products in all regions, in particular of elephant tusks and rhinoceros horns. We stress that this trend is detrimental to ecological balance, promotes crime within and across borders and must be halted with a sense of urgency to avoid reversing decades of conservation gains. We therefore strongly condemn poaching and crimes related to illicit trafficking in wildlife, and agree to enhance international cooperation in accordance with the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora and other relevant agreements to curb such practices, address the demand and supply of wildlife and its products and increase the capacity of communities affected by such trafficking to pursue sustainable livelihood opportunities.

Forests

188.   We highlight the social, economic and environmental benefits of forests to people and the contributions of sustainable forest management to the objective of sustainable development. We support cross-sectoral and cross-institutional policies promoting sustainable forest management (United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development), and recognize the importance of the holistic, integral and alternative approaches for the sustainable management of forests developed under the climate change negotiations.

189.   We note the outcome of the tenth session of the United Nations Forum on Forests, held in Istanbul, Turkey, from 8 to 19 April 2013, and underscore the importance of the four global objectives on forests for the international community as a whole and in particular for developing countries. The fourth global objective is especially relevant for developing countries since it identifies the need to reverse the reduction in official development assistance and to mobilize new and additional financial resources for the implementation of sustainable forest management. In fulfilling the fourth global objective, it is essential to respect the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities between developed and developing countries. In this regard, we urge developed countries to exercise strong political will and flexibility to contribute to the achievement of sustainable forest management.

190.   We call for the establishment of a new global forest fund in line with the principles of sustainable development. We consider that this is necessary in order to channel the funds needed by developing countries to sustainably manage their forests.

Desertification, land degradation and drought

191.   We reaffirm that desertification, land degradation and drought represent serious concerns for developing countries. International action is, therefore, urgently required to address these challenges. We emphasize the great importance of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, particularly in Africa, stressing that desertification, land degradation and drought undermine the three dimensions of sustainable development. We reiterate that addressing desertification, land degradation and drought enables countries to deal with several global policy challenges, such as food security, adaptation to climate change and forced migration. In this context, we note the eleventh session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, held from 16 to 27 September 2013 in Windhoek.

192.   We reiterate the need for cooperation through the sharing of climate and weather information and forecasting and early warning systems related to desertification, land degradation and drought, as well as to dust storms and sandstorms, at the global, regional and subregional levels. In this regard, we invite States and relevant organizations to cooperate in the sharing of related information and forecasting and early warning systems.

Oceans and seas

193.   We stress the importance of the conservation and sustainable use of the oceans and seas and of their resources for sustainable development, including through their contributions to poverty eradication, sustained economic growth, food security and the creation of sustainable livelihoods and decent work, while at the same time protecting biodiversity and the marine environment and addressing the impacts of climate change. We therefore commit to protect and restore the health, productivity and resilience of oceans and marine ecosystems, to maintain their biodiversity, enabling their conservation and sustainable use for present and future generations, and to deliver on all three dimensions of sustainable development.

Internet governance, including the right to privacy

194.   We view with dismay that some countries have recently been undertaking extensive, arbitrary and unlawful surveillance and/or interception of communications, including extraterritorial surveillance and/or interception of communications as well as the collection of personal data, including on a mass scale, on people and institutions in other countries, including on political leaders, senior officials and various government departments and agencies, as well as citizens. We call for the ending of such activities, which violate the human right to privacy of individuals and have a negative impact on the relations between countries. In this regard, we all call for intergovernmental entities to discuss and review the use of information and communications technologies to ensure that they fully comply with international law, including human rights law, in accordance with the purpose and principles of the Charter of the United Nations.

195.   We welcome the NETmundial Global Multistakeholder Meeting on the Future of Internet Governance held in São Paulo, Brazil, on 23 and 24 April 2014, and take note of its outcome document.

196.   We emphasize the important opportunities provided by information and communications technologies, including social media and related infrastructure, as a vehicle to promote better understanding among nations and the achievement of internationally agreed upon development objectives.

197.   We recognize at the same time that the illegal use of information and communications technologies has a negative impact on nations and their citizens. In this regard, we express our strong rejection of the use of information and communications technologies in violation of international law, including the right to privacy, and of any action of this nature directed against any Member State, in particular a State member of the Group of 77.

198.   We further underscore the importance of ensuring that the use of such technologies should be fully compatible with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and international law, in particular the principles of sovereignty, the non-interference in internal matters and the internationally recognized rules of civil coexistence among States.

199.   In this regard, we take note with concern of the information published in international media about the objectives of the so-called “ZunZuneo” network, which would constitute an illicit use of new information and communications technologies.

200.   We therefore reiterate our commitment to intensifying international efforts directed at safeguarding cyberspace and promoting its exclusive use for the achievement of peaceful purposes and as a vehicle to contribute to both economic and social development, and highlight that international cooperation, in full respect of human rights, is the only viable option for fostering the positive effects of information and communications technologies, preventing their potential negative effects, promoting their peaceful and legitimate use and guaranteeing that both scientific and technological progress is directed at preserving peace and promoting the welfare and development of our societies.

Millennium Development Goals

201.   We express our commitment to strengthening efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015 and to taking a leading role in shaping the international development agenda during the post-2015 period. We call upon the international community to redouble all efforts for the accelerated achievement of the Goals by 2015 through concrete measures.

202.   We note the progress achieved so far in reaching the Millennium Development Goals but are concerned about the unevenness and gaps in achievement and about the vast socioeconomic and environmental challenges that remain in developing countries. We reiterate that the Goals remain critical for meeting the basic needs of people in developing countries, many of which are not on track to achieving them by 2015.

203.   We underscore the central role of the global partnership for development and the importance of Millennium Development Goal No. 8 in achieving all the Goals and that without substantial international support and systemic changes, several of the Goals will not be achieved in many developing countries by 2015. We call upon the international community to intensify its efforts to provide enhanced means of implementation to developing countries through a renewed global partnership based on the collective quest to eradicate poverty and deprivation.

Sustainable development and sustainable development goals

204.   We recall and reaffirm the statement made by world leaders in the outcome document of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, “The future we want”, that poverty eradication is the greatest global challenge facing the world today and an indispensable requirement for sustainable development.

205.   We reiterate that eradicating poverty, changing unsustainable patterns of consumption and production, promoting sustainable patterns of consumption and production, and protecting and managing the natural resource base for economic and social development are the overarching objectives of and essential requirements for sustainable development. We also reaffirm the need to achieve sustainable development by promoting sustained, inclusive and equitable economic growth, creating greater opportunities for all, reducing inequalities, raising basic standards of living, fostering equitable social development and inclusion, and promoting integrated and sustainable management of natural resources and ecosystems that supports, inter alia, economic, social and human development while facilitating ecosystem conservation, regeneration and restoration and resilience in the face of new and emerging challenges.

206.   We stress that sustainable development goals should address and be focused on the integration of the three dimensions of sustainable development (economic, social and environmental) and be guided by the outcome document of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, respecting all the Rio Principles and taking into account different national circumstances, capacities and priorities.

207.   We reaffirm that the outcome document of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development is the basis for the work of the Open Working Group of the General Assembly on Sustainable Development Goals. We underscore the importance for the sustainable development goals to build upon and complement the Millennium Development Goals in making progress towards the overarching objective of achieving poverty eradication.

208.   We stress that progress in realizing the Millennium Development Goals, the sustainable development goals and the post-2015 development agenda will depend on progress in creating a pro-development, international, enabling environment and delivering the relevant means of implementation, particularly in the areas of finance, trade, technology and capacity-building, to developing countries.

209.   We reaffirm that the guiding principles of the sustainable development goals must be based on all principles set out at the major United Nations summits and conferences in the social, environmental and economic fields, bearing in mind those set out in, among others, the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, Agenda 21 and the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, and those arising from the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (2012), the International Conference on Financing for Development (2002) and the World Summit for Social Development (1995), and be consistent with international law. The process and outcome of the Open Working Group of the General Assembly on Sustainable Development Goals should fully respect all the Rio Principles, in particular the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities. The sustainable development goals should contribute to the full implementation of the outcomes of all the major summits in the economic, social and environmental fields.

210.   We reaffirm the recognition that planet Earth and its ecosystems are our home and that “Mother Earth” is a common expression in a number of countries and regions, and note that some countries recognize the rights of nature in the context of the promotion of sustainable development. We are convinced that in order to achieve a just balance among the economic, social and environment needs of present and future generations, it is necessary to promote harmony with nature. We call for a holistic, integrated approach to sustainable development, which may include, among others, the recognition by some countries of the principles mentioned above, to guide humanity to live in harmony with nature and lead to efforts to restore the health and integrity of the Earth’s ecosystems.

211.   We welcome the interactive dialogue of the General Assembly on Harmony with Nature, held on 22 April 2013, to commemorate International Mother Earth Day. At the event, different economic approaches were discussed in the context of sustainable development, to promote a more ethical basis for the relationship between humanity and Earth, as was the need to promote the sustainable use of natural resources, bearing in mind the importance of exploring the adoption and implementation of policies to build national developmental strategies that promote a better distribution of benefits, going beyond the mere production of raw commodities, pursuant to General Assembly resolution 67/214.

212.   We stress that the report of the Open Working Group of the General Assembly on Sustainable Development Goals must be the result of an inclusive intergovernmental process. Thus, we reaffirm our commitment to actively engaging in such negotiations.

213.   We underscore the need to define adequate means of implementation for each and every sustainable development goal, as well as the need for a dedicated sustainable development goal on the strengthened global partnership for sustainable development containing broader commitments on the means of implementation and international cooperation for sustainable development.

Post-2015 development agenda

214.   We reaffirm the centrality of a just, transparent and inclusive intergovernmental negotiation process in the establishment of the post-2015 development agenda, as decided at the special event towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals, held in 2013. We stress that this intergovernmental negotiation process will need to focus on its modalities and substantive aspects to arrive at a negotiated and agreed outcome document, taking fully into account the outcomes of the various follow-up processes mandated at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, as well as of the major summits and conferences related to the social, economic and environmental fields.

215.   Recalling the statement made at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development that poverty eradication is the greatest global challenge and an indispensable requirement for sustainable development, we emphasize that poverty eradication must remain the central and overarching objective of the post-2015 development agenda. We strongly support the view that the post-2015 development agenda should reinforce the commitment of the international community to eradicate poverty by 2030.

216.   We underline the need for a coherent approach to the post-2015 development agenda, which should reinforce the commitment of the international community to poverty eradication and the integration of the three dimensions of sustainable development in a balanced manner with the contributions of the Open Working Group of the General Assembly on Sustainable Development Goals, the financing for development process, the Intergovernmental Committee on Experts for Sustainable Development Financing, the process to develop options for a United Nations technology facilitation mechanism and other relevant processes.

217.   We reaffirm that the post-2015 development agenda must fully adhere to the Rio Principles, in particular the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities.

218.   We underscore the importance of strengthening the global partnership for development, to be based on quantified and time-bound targets, consistent with Millennium Development Goal No. 8 and in accordance with the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities in the post-2015 development agenda. North-South cooperation remains the core of this partnership and South-South and triangular cooperation are a useful complement to North-South cooperation. Strengthened commitment from developed countries is therefore required to enhance international cooperation and scale up support for developing countries. We emphasize the need for developed countries to urgently fulfil the official development assistance commitments they have made, individually and collectively, including the target of allocating 0.7 per cent of their gross national product to official development assistance by 2015 and the target of allocating between 0.15 and 0.20 per cent of their gross national product to official development assistance for least developed countries.

219.   We emphasize that the post-2015 development agenda must meaningfully address issues of reform of the institutions of global economic governance in order to strengthen the voice and participation of developing countries in decision-making in these institutions. We also note that the global economic, financial and trading systems remain imbalanced, to the disadvantage of developing countries, and in this regard we stress the importance of identifying, in the post-2015 development agenda, the weaknesses and imbalances of these global systems and of proposing actions for improvements with the aim of supporting the development agenda and the programmes of developing countries.

220.   We affirm the need for a sound implementation mechanism for the post-2015 agenda to ensure development resources for the attainment of goals. In this regard, we call for the intensification of development financing, for the establishment and improvement of mechanisms of technology transfer and for the enhancement of efforts to build the capacities of developing countries.

221.   We call for a responsible accountability approach to be adopted on the question of partnerships involving the United Nations, particularly as regards participation of the private sector, civil society and philanthropic entities. In this regard, we reaffirm the need to enhance transparency, coherence and sustainability, as well as accountability to Member States, in United Nations partnerships, and stress the need to ensure that procedures exist for the consideration and approval of any such initiatives by Member States in the General Assembly, in order to preserve the intergovernmental nature of the United Nations.

222.   We emphasize that the post-2015 development agenda should be an agenda for development, and in this context it is important to advance economic, social and environmental development in a comprehensive, balanced and coordinated manner. This agenda should be broader than that of the Millennium Development Goals and aim to include areas, issues and groups of populations that are key to achieving sustainable development.

223.   We also stress the importance for the post-2015 development agenda, if it is to be global in nature and universally applicable to all, to fully respect the development policy space of developing countries to make use of policy tools and measures that are required to implement their policies for poverty eradication and other developmental plans and programmes. We also stress that the post-2015 development agenda should promote rapid, sustained and inclusive economic growth in developing countries as a key requirement for eradicating poverty and hunger and reducing inequalities within and among countries.

Part V: Particular needs of developing countries in special situations

224.   We recall the special needs of Africa, the only continent currently not on track to achieve the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals. We recognize that, while economic growth is returning, there is a need to sustain the recovery, which is fragile and uneven, to face the ongoing adverse impacts of multiple crises on development and the serious challenges these impacts pose to the fight against poverty and hunger, which could further undermine the achievement of the internationally agreed development goals, including the Goals in Africa.

225.   We express profound concern about the fact that the commitment to doubling aid to Africa by 2010, as articulated at the summit of the Group of Eight held in Gleneagles, United Kingdom, was not entirely reached, and in this regard we stress the need to make rapid progress in order to fulfil that and other donors’ commitments to increase aid through a variety of means, including the provision of new additional resources, the transfer of technology and the building of capacity of African countries, and to support their sustainable development. We call for continued support for Africa’s development initiatives, including Agenda 2063 (a continental strategic vision and priority framework for socioeconomic development), the New Partnership for Africa’s Development and the Programme for Infrastructure Development in Africa. On the other hand, we welcome the support that some developing countries have extended to Africa through South-South and triangular cooperation programmes.

226.   We express concern for the situation in the least developed countries, which continues to deteriorate as a consequence of ongoing multiple and mutually exacerbating global crises. The global financial and economic crisis currently under way is clearly undermining development in the least developed countries. The modest development gains that these countries have made over the years are being reversed, pushing a larger number of their people into extreme poverty. Many least developed countries continue to lag in meeting most of the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals. We emphasize the need for the full and effective implementation of the commitments made in the Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries for the Decade 2011-2020. We further underline the critical need to realize expeditiously a renewed and strengthened global partnership for the least developed countries in order to overcome their structural challenges, eradicate poverty, achieve internationally agreed development goals and enable half the number of least developed countries to meet the criteria for graduation from the category by 2020.

227.   We recall that the unique and particular vulnerabilities of small island developing States have been acknowledged by the international community at various United Nations meetings, including those held in Rio de Janeiro (1992), Barbados (1994), Johannesburg (2002) and Mauritius (2005), and note with concern that insufficient steps have been taken at the international level to address the vulnerabilities and effectively support the sustainable development efforts of such States. We recall that climate change and sea level rise pose the greatest threat to the survival and viability of small island developing States and to their efforts to achieve sustainable development goals, and call on the international community to commit itself to urgently increasing international cooperation to support those efforts, particularly through increased financial resources, capacity-building, transfer of technology and know-how, and increased participation of small island developing States in international economic decision-making. We welcome the decision to convene the third International Conference for Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, to be held in 2014, in Apia, and call for enhanced efforts to assist small island developing States in implementing the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the Mauritius Strategy for the Further Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States. We commit to work towards a strong outcome for the Apia conference that supports small island developing States in their sustainable development needs and aspirations.

228.   We recognize the special needs of and challenges faced by landlocked developing countries caused by these States’ lack of territorial access to the sea, which is aggravated by their remoteness from world markets, and also express concern about the fact that the economic growth and social well-being of landlocked developing countries remain very vulnerable to external shocks and to the multiple challenges the international community faces, including the financial and economic crisis and climate change. We stress the need for the international community to enhance development assistance to landlocked developing countries to help them overcome their vulnerabilities, build resilience and set themselves on a path of sustainable social and economic development. We reaffirm the need to urgently address the special development needs of and challenges faced by landlocked and transit developing countries through their genuine partnership with sufficient support and cooperation from the international community for the effective implementation of priorities of the Almaty Programme of Action and its successor programme. We welcome the decision of the General Assembly to hold a comprehensive ten-year review conference of the Almaty Programme of Action in 2014, and call upon the international community to critically consider the special needs of and the challenges faced by landlocked developing countries, and to help develop priorities for a new, more comprehensive, common action-oriented framework of landlocked developing countries for the next decade.

229.   We recognize that middle-income countries still face significant development challenges, and underline that, despite the recent progress achieved and the efforts made by middle-income countries, 75 per cent of the world’s poor population lives in those countries. The achievement of the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals, as well as the achievement of full employment and the creation of jobs for youth, the diversification of their economies, and the development of technologies continue to be huge challenges for middle-income countries. We underline the increasing solidarity and role played by middle-income countries in the area of South-South cooperation in support of the development efforts of other developing countries. We also note the outcomes of the High-Level Conference of Middle-Income Countries organized by Costa Rica and UNIDO in June 2013.

230.   We stress the need for the United Nations development system to ensure that it addresses the diverse and specific development needs of middle-income countries in a coordinated manner through, inter alia, an accurate assessment of the national priorities and needs of these countries, taking into account the use of variables that go beyond per capita income criteria and recognizing the multidimensional nature of development and poverty, and through adequate, systemic and better-focused support in accordance with national plans.

231.   We reiterate our call for the immediate and full withdrawal of Israel, the occupying Power, from the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, and the occupied Syrian Golan to the line of 4 June 1967 and from the remaining Lebanese occupied land. We reaffirm our support for a Middle East peace process aimed at achieving a comprehensive, just and lasting peace in the region, in accordance with the relevant United Nations resolutions, including Security Council resolutions 242 (1967)338 (1973)425 (1978) and 1850 (2008), and the principle of land for peace. In this context, we also reaffirm our support for the Arab Peace Initiative adopted by the Council of the League of Arab States in March 2002.

232.   We stress the need for the early realization by the Palestinian people of their right to self-determination and to the independence of their State of Palestine to allow for their stability, prosperity and development towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, to which all peoples are entitled. We express support for the efforts of the Palestinian people to achieve independence and welcome in this regard the submission by the State of Palestine of its application, on 23 September 2011, for full membership in the United Nations, and notes the adoption by the General Assembly of resolution 67/19 of 29 November 2012, by which it accorded to Palestine non-member observer State status in the United Nations. We continue to support the admission process of the State of Palestine to become a full member of the United Nations as soon as possible. We recall that 2014 was declared the International Year of Solidarity with the Palestinian people.

233.   We condemn the ongoing Israeli military occupation of the Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, and the illegal actions by the occupying Power that continue to cause civilian casualties, socioeconomic and humanitarian hardship and destruction to Palestinian properties, infrastructure and agricultural lands, and to undermine the contiguity, unity and integrity of the Territory.

234.   We express deep concern about the further decline of the social and economic conditions of the Palestinian people, particularly in the besieged Gaza Strip, as a result of the illegal Israeli practices, including construction of settlements and the Wall and the imposition of a blockade and hundreds of checkpoints. We call upon Israel, the occupying Power, to cease immediately all illegal measures impairing the Palestinian economy and development, including, in particular, the inhumane and illegal blockade imposed on the Gaza Strip and restrictions on the movement of persons and goods, including commercial trade throughout, into and out of the Occupied Palestinian Territory, and to make reparation for all damages caused to Palestinian properties, institutions and infrastructure. We reiterate our call upon the international community to continue providing much needed developmental and humanitarian assistance to the Palestinian people during this critical period, particularly for reconstruction and economic recovery in the Gaza Strip.

235.   We reaffirm the inalienable rights of the Palestinian people and of the population of the occupied Syrian Golan over their natural resources, including land, water and energy resources, and demand that Israel, the occupying Power, cease the exploitation, damage, cause of loss or depletion and endangerment of the natural resources in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, and in the occupied Syrian Golan.

236.   We reaffirm the need for the Governments of Argentina and the United Kingdom to resume negotiations in accordance with the principles and objectives of the Charter of the United Nations and the relevant resolutions of the General Assembly, in order to find, as soon as possible, a peaceful solution to the sovereignty dispute relating to the question of the Malvinas Islands, which seriously damages the economic capacities of Argentina, and the need for both parties to refrain from taking decisions that would imply introducing unilateral modifications in the situation while the islands are going through the process recommended by the General Assembly.

237.   We reaffirm the need to find a peaceful solution to the sovereignty issues facing developing countries, including the dispute over the Chagos archipelago, including Diego Garcia, which was unlawfully excised by the United Kingdom from the territory of Mauritius, prior to independence, in violation of international law and General Assembly resolutions 1514 (XV) of 14 December 1960 and 2066 (XX) of 16 December 1965. Failure to resolve these decolonization and sovereignty issues would seriously damage and undermine the development and economic capacities and prospects of developing countries. In this regard, we note with great concern that despite the strong opposition of Mauritius, the United Kingdom purported to establish a “marine protected area” around the Chagos archipelago, which contravenes international law and further impedes the exercise by Mauritius of its sovereign rights over the archipelago and the right of return of Mauritius citizens who were forcibly removed from the archipelago by the United Kingdom.

238.   We take note of the Havana Declaration adopted at the Second Summit of the Community of the Latin American and Caribbean States, held on 28 and 29 January 2014.

239.   We reaffirm our firm rejection of the imposition of laws and regulations with extraterritorial impact and all other forms of coercive economic measures, including unilateral sanctions, against developing countries, and reiterate the urgent need to eliminate them immediately. We emphasize that such actions not only undermine the principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations and international law, but also severely threaten the freedom of trade and investment. We therefore call on the international community to adopt urgent and effective measures to eliminate the use of unilateral coercive economic measures against developing countries.

240.   We express our rejection of unilateral lists and certifications by some developed countries affecting developing countries, in particular those referring to terrorism, drug trafficking, trafficking in persons and others of a similar nature.

241.   We reiterate our call, made at the second South Summit, organized by the Group of 77 and China and held in Doha in 2005, for the Government of the United States of America to put an end to the economic, commercial and financial embargo against Cuba, which, in addition to being unilateral and contrary to the Charter of the United Nations and international law, as well as to the principle of neighbourliness, causes huge material losses and economic damage to the people of Cuba. We urge strict compliance to the relevant resolutions of the General Assembly on this matter. We also take note that in the Havana Declaration, the Heads of State and Government of the Community of the Latin American and Caribbean States reaffirmed their strongest rejection of the implementation of unilateral coercive measures and once again reiterated their solidarity with Cuba, while reaffirming their call upon the Government of the United States to put an end to the economic, commercial and financial blockade imposed on that sisterly nation for more than five decades. They rejected the inclusion of Cuba in the list of States sponsors of terrorism published by the State Department of the United States, and requested that an end be put to that unilateral practice.

242. We reaffirm our rejection to the unilateral economic sanctions imposed on the Sudan, which have a negative impact on the development and prosperity of the people of the Sudan, and in this regard call for an immediate lifting of those sanctions.